Marks used in our publications
Following marks are used in our publications:
Dash 
 
a) the observed phenomenon does not exist. 
b) when the phenomenon exists and has been registered, but no cases. 
Two Dashes 
  
data cannot be shown 
Two dots 
.. 
in place of decimal numbers less than half of the smallest available decimal number (which would otherwise require additional decimal digits). 
Four dots 
.... 
the phenomenon exists, but data is unknown for some reason. 
Cross hatch, number sign 
# 
The value is the defined ratio but the denominator is zero (Divison by zero). 
Colon 
: 
Data statistically unreliable (less than 20 occurrences). 
Double parenthesis 
((123.4)) 
Parenthesis 
(123.4) 
Data statistically less reliable (2049 occurrences). 
Large dot 
● 
Data statistically extremely unreliable 
Phi 
Ø 
average 
Percent sign 
% 
Percentage 
Note 
^{1)} 
note sign  footnote (number followed by a bracket, in a superscript) 
Number: zero point zero 
0,0 
values less than 0.5 of the unit of measure used 
Asterisk, star 
* 
corrected data 
Lowercase letter z 
z 
confidential data 
Lowercase letter p 
p 
provisional data 


